João Frias
 
2017_BASEMAN_OceanCruise_Vigo_137.JPG

Recent papers and reports

(2019) Microplastics: Finding a consensus on the definition

Polymer science is one of the most revolutionary research areas of the last century, instigated by the discovery of Bakelite, the first synthetic plastic. Plastic, once a revolutionary material, has gradually become a global environmental threat with ubiquitous distribution.

The term ‘microplastics’ coined in 2004, is used to describe the smaller plastic particles recorded, however there is still no all-inclusive definition that accurately encompasses all criteria that could potentially describe what a microplastic is.

Here, the authors focus on the currently reported methods for describing and identifying microplastics and propose a new definition that incorporates all the important descriptive properties of microplastics. This definition not only focuses on size and origin, but also considers physical and chemical defining properties. While this manuscript may promote debate, it aims to reach a consensus on a definition for microplastics which can be useful for research, reporting and legislative purposes.

(2019) Deep sea sediments of the Arctic Central Basin: A potential sink for microplastics

Deep sea sediments have emerged as a potential sink for microplastics in the marine environment. The discovery of microplastics in various environmental compartments of the Arctic Central Basin (ACB) suggested that these contaminants were potentially being transported to the deep-sea realm of this oceanic basin. For the first time, the present study conducted a preliminary assessment to determine whether microplastics were present in surficial sediments from the ACB. Gravity and piston corers were used to retrieve sediments from depths of 855–4353 m at 11 sites in the ACB during the Arctic Ocean 2016 (AO16) expedition. Surficial sediments from the various cores were subjected to density flotation with sodium tungstate dihydrate solution (Na2WO4·2H2O, density 1.4 g cm−3). Potential microplastics were isolated and analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Of the surficial samples, 7 of the 11 samples contained synthetic polymers which included polyester (n = 3), polystyrene (n = 2), polyacrylonitrile (n = 1), polypropylene (n = 1), polyvinyl chloride (n = 1) and polyamide (n = 1). Fibres (n = 5) and fragments (n = 4) were recorded in the samples. In order to avoid mis-interpretation, these findings must be taken in the context that (i) sampling equipment did not guarantee retrieval of undisturbed surficial sediments, (ii) low sample volumes were analysed (~10 g per site), (iii) replicate sediment samples per site was not possible, (iv) no air contamination checks were included during sampling and, (v) particles <100 µm were automatically excluded from analysis. While the present study provides preliminary indication that microplastics may be accumulating in the deep-sea realm of the ACB, further work is necessary to assess microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in surficial sediments of the ACB.

(2019) Harmonized protocol for monitoring microplastics in biota

Collecting microplastic data in aquatic biota is crucial for monitoring and risk assessment evaluations of these particles in the environment (Hermsen et al., 2018). Current frameworks and individual studies on concentrations of microplastics in biota employ a wide range of methodologies and reporting formats, which precludes the comparability among studies.

Considering the recommendations of the international consortia of the JPI-Oceans projects BASEMAN and EPHEMARE, common experiences and methodologies for microplastics extraction and characterization in biota were shared during a joint workshop held in Ancona, Italy, in July 2018. Amending the knowledge assessed, the general principles of a protocol adaptable to different species (mainly focused on macroinvertebrates and fish) will be summarized here. Apart from this, references for marine birds, turtles and mammals, based on literature review, will be included to widen the selection of species.

To reach this aim, a baseline method/harmonized protocol is provided here for sampling and processing targeted species; and for extracting and characterizing microplastic in biota samples. Several marine species are suitable candidates to be used for monitoring microplastics in the environment, and in order to do so, all options described in this report should comply with ethical recommendations from your organization and/or institution.

To conclude, quality assurance and quality control activities are highlighted to improve data on microplastic ingestion studies.

 

Peer-reviewed Papers

Kanhai, L.D., Johansson, C., Frias JPGL, Gardfeldt, K., Thompson, R. C., O’Connor, I., (2019). Deep sea sediments of the Arctic Central Basin: A potential sink for microplastics. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers.

Frias JPGL,Nash, R. (2019). Microplastics: Finding a consensus on the definition. Marine Pollution Bulletin 138, pp., 145-147.

Pagter, E., Frias, J., Nash, R. (2018). Microplastics in Galway Bay: A comparison of sampling and separation methods. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135, pp. 932-940.

Rios, N., Frias JPGL, Rodriguez, Y., Carriço, R., Garcia, S., Juliano, M., Pham, C. (2018) Spatio-temporal variability of beached macro-litter on remote islands of the North Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 133, pp. 304-311. 

Antunes, J., Frias, J., Sobral, P., (2018). Microplastics on the Portuguese Coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin 131, 294-302.

Bessa, F., Barría P, Neto J.M., Frias JPGL, Otero V., Sobral P, Marques JC, (2018).  Ocurrence of microplastics in commercial fish from a natural estuarine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 128, pp. 575-584

Pham, C., Rodríguez, Y., Dauphin, A., Carriço, R., Frias, J.P.G.L, Vandeperre, F., Otero, V., Santos, M. R., Martins, H. R., Bolten, A. B., (2017). Plastic ingestion in oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Frias JPGL, Gago J, Otero V, Sobral P, (2016). Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters. Marine Environmental Research, 114: 24–30.

Frias JPGL, Otero V, Sobral P, (2014). Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Marine Environmental Research, 95: 89-95.

Antunes, J.C., Frias, J.P.G.L., Micaelo, A. C., Sobral, P., (2013). Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 130: 62-69.

Mizukawa, K., Takada, H., Ito, M., Bee Geok, Y., Hosoda, J., Yamashita, R., Saha, M., Suzuki, S., Miguez, C., Frias, J., Antunes, J. C., Sobral, P., Santos, I., Micaelo, C., Ferreira, A. M. (2013). Monitoring of a wide range of organic micropollutants on the Portuguese coast using plastic resin pellets. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 70: 296-302.

Frias, J.P.G.L., Antunes, J. C., Sobral, P., (2013). Local marine litter survey – A case study in Alcobaça municipality, Portugal. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 13 (2): 169-179.

Frias, J., Martins J., Sobral, P. (2011). Research in plastic marine debris in mainland Portugal. Ecologi@ 3: 12-21. Speco

Frias, J., Sobral, P., Ferreira, A.M. (2010). Organic pollutants in microplastics from two beaches of the Portuguese coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60: 1988-1992.

 

Technical reports

Filipa Bessa, João P.G.L. Frias, Tanja Knögel, Amy Lusher, Jose Manuel Andrade, Joana Antunes, Paula Sobral, Elena Pagter, Róisín Nash, Ian O’Connor, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Maria Emmanuelle Kerros, Victor León, Valentina Tirelli, Giuseppe Suaria, Clara Lopes, Joana Raimundo, Miguel Caetano, Jesús Gago, Lucía Viñas, Olga Carretero, Kerstin Magnusson, Maria Granberg, Rachid Dris, Marten Fischer, Barbara Scholz-Böttcher, Soledad Muniategui, Gloria Grueiro, Verónica Fernández, Luca Palazzo, Andrea de Lucia, Andrea Camedda, Carlo Giacomo Avio, Stefania Gorbi, Lucia Pittura, Francesco Regoli, Gunnar Gerdts (2019). Harmonized Protocol for monitoring microplastics in biota JPI-Oceans BASEMAN project.

Ana Filgueras, Jesus Gago, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Guiseppe Suaria, Valentina Tirelli, Jose Andrade, João P.G.L. Frias, Róisín Nash, Ian O’Connor, Clara Lopes, Miguel Caetano, Joana Raimundo, Olga Carretero, Lucia Vinas, Joana Antunes, Filipa Bessa, Paula Sobral, Alenka Goruppi, Stefano Aliani, Luca Palazzo, Giuseppe Andrea de Lucia, Andrea Camedda, Soledad Muniategui, Gloria Gruceiro, Veronica Fernandez, Gunnar Gerdts, (2019). Standardised protocol for monitoring microplastics in seawater      JPI-Oceans BASEMAN project.

João P.G.L. Frias, Elena Pagter, Róisín Nash, Ian O’Connor, Olga Carretero, Ana Filgueiras, Jesus Gago, Joana Antunes, Filipa Bessa, Paula Sobral, Alenka Goruppi, Valentina Tirelli, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Giuseppe Suaria, Stefano Aliani, Clara Lopes, Joana Raimundo, Miguel Caetano, Luca Palazzo, Giuseppe Andrea de Lucia, Andrea Camedda, Soledad Muniategui, Gloria Grueiro, Veronica Fernandez, José Andrade, Rachid Dris, Christian Laforsch, Barbara M. Scholz-Böttcher, Gunnar Gerdts, (2018). Standardised protocol for monitoring microplastics in sediments.       JPI-Oceans BASEMAN project.

Carretero, O., Frias, JPGL, Pereiro, D., Lopes, C., Antunes, J., Andrade, J., Camedda, A., Goruppi, A., de Lucia, G, A., Pedrotti, M. L., Sobral, P., Caetano, M., Tirelli, V., Nash, R., Gago, J., (2017) WP4: Microplastic sampling comparison

Frias, J., Antunes, J. Sobral, P. (2013). Relatório de Estado de Poluição Marinha por Plásticos no Município de Alcobaça. FCT-UNL, Lisboa. 35p. (Report on the state of plastic marine pollution in the Alcobaça Municipality, in Portuguese).

 

Book Chapters

Barboza, L. G. A., Frias J. P. G. L., Booth, A. M., Vieira, L. R., Masura, J., Baker, J., Foster, G., Guilhermino, L. (2018). World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation. 2nd Edition. Chapter 18 - Marine Pollution by Microplastics: Environmental Contamination, Biological Effects, and Research Challenges. Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts. Academic Press. Paperback ISBN: 9780128050521. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805052-1.00020-6

 

Proceeding of International meetings with referee

Bessa, F., Barría P., Neto, J.M., Frias, JPGL, Otero, V., Sobral, P., Marques, J.C. (2018). Microplastics in juvenile commercial fish from a natural estuarine environment, from the book: Proceedings of the International Conference on Microplastic Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. Springer Water

Frias, JPGL., Carriço, R., Rodriguez, Y., Rios, N., Garcia, S., Pham., C. (2017). Marine Litter Accumulation in the Azorean Archipelago: Azorlit Preliminary Data. Micro 2016. Fate and Impact of Microplastics in Marine Ecosystems - from the coastline to the Open Sea. pp. 48. 

GESAMP (2010), Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection); Bowmer, T. and Kershaw, P.J., 2010 (Eds.), Proceedings of the GESAMP International Workshop on plastic particles as a vector in transporting persistent, bio-accumulating and toxic substances in the oceans. GESAMP Rep. Stud. No. 82, 68pp.

Sobral, P., Antunes, J., Frias, J. (2014). Microplastics – A never-ending story. in "Marine litter in the Mediterranean and Black Seas". [F.Briand,ed.] CIESM -Mediterranean Science Commission Workshop Monograph n°46. CIESM Publisher, Monaco. p. 125-136. 

Sobral, P., Antunes, J., Ferraz, M., Ferro, F., Frias, J., Raposo, I. P., Quaresma, S., Louro, P., Oliveira, M., (2015). Marine litter: An issue with no borders – Portuguese Partnership on Marine Litter. ISSN: 2183-5322. Portuguese Marine Litter Association (APLM), Monte de Caparica, Portugal.

 

Posters

Frias, J., O’Connor, I., Nash, R., (2018). Standardised Protocol for Monitoring Microplastics in Sediments. MICRO2018, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands (19th-23rd November 2018)

Pagter, E., Stornan, O., Keegan, S., Frias, J., Kavanagh F., Nash, R., (2018). Microplastics in Galway Bay: A preliminary Study. MICRO2018, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands (19th-23rd November 2018)

Pagter, E., Frias, J., Kavanagh F., O’Connor, I., Nash, R., (2018). Influence of sampling techniques and density separation methods on the quantification of benthic microplastics. Sixth International Marine Debris Conference, San Diego California, U.S.A. (12th-16th March 2018)

Frias, J., Pagter, E., O’Connor, I., Nash, R., (2018). Reducing the risk of cross-contamination through defining a standard operating procedure (SOP) for microplastic sampling, processing and identification. Sixth International Marine Debris Conference, San Diego California, U.S.A. (12th-16th March 2018)

Louro, P., Frias, J., Silva, F., Antunes, J., Quaresma, S., Ferro, F., Raposo, I., Sobral., P. Portuguese Partnership on Marine Litter – Achievements and cal for action. Sixth International Marine Debris Conference, San Diego California, U.S.A. (12th-16th March 2018)

Frias, J., Nash, R., Carretero, O., Viñas, L., Gago, J., Lopes, C., Raimundo, J., Caetano, M., Antunes, J., Bessa, F., Sobral, P., Muniategui, S., Gueiro, G., Fernández, V., Andrade, J., Pedrotti, M. L., Lucia, G. A., Camedda, A., Palazzo, L., Tirelli, V., Suaria, G., Aliani, S., Haikonen, K., Magnusson, K., Mattsson K., Hassellöv, M., Kögel, T., Gerdts, G., (2017). Sampling methodologies for microplastics in the marine environment (WP4). 2nd JPI‑Oceans Conference. Lisbon, Portugal, 26th October.

Rodríguez. Y., Frias J.P.G.L., Carriço, R., Neves, V., Bried, J., Franeker, J., Pham, C., (2016). Monitoring plastic ingestion in selected Azorean marine fauna: Azorlit preliminary data. Poster 101934. MICRO 2016: Fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems from the coastline to the open sea. Lanzarote, Spain, 25-27th May.

Carriço, R., Frias J.P.G.L., Rodríguez, Y., Rios, N., Cruz, M. J., Dâmaso, C., Pham, C., (2016). Tackling marine litter: Awareness and outreach in the Azores. Poster 103441. MICRO 2016: Fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems from the coastline to the open sea. Lanzarote, Spain, 25‑27th May.

Frias, J. Sobral, P. (2013). Characterization of Marine Debris on the Portuguese Coast and Implementation of Best Practices to Reduce Impacts, Second Conference on Global Land-Ocean Connections (GLOC-2) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in Jamaica, 2-4th October.

Sobral, P Antunes, J., Frias, J., Sobral P., Micaelo, C., Ferreira, AM. (2012). Plastic marine debris and persistent organic pollutants along the Portuguese coast: How much and how many? Abstracts of the 97th Ecological Society of America-ESA Meeting, Portland, OR. USA. 6-10 August.

Frias J.P.G.L., Sobral, P., Ferreira, A.M. (2011). Organic pollutants adsorbed to microplastics debris from two beaches of the Portuguese Coast. Poster extended abstracts from the 5th International Marine Debris Conference, Honolulu, Hawai, USA. p. 117-120. 20-25th March.

Martins, J, Sobral, P. Frias, J., (2010). Plastic debris accumulation in the West coast of Portugal. 47th ECSA Meeting. Figueira da Foz, 14-19th September.

 

Invited talks, oral presentations and lectures

Frias JPGL, Nash, R., (2018). Standardised methodologies: Challenges of implementation. Final JPI-Oceans meeting. Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands (19th-23rd November 2018)

Rodrigues, Y, Rios, N., Frias JPGL, Pham, CK, et al. (2018). Monitoring plastic pollution in the Azores archipelago: from surface down to the deep seafloor and in biota. MICRO2018, Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands (19th-23rd November 2018)

Frias JPGL, Gerdts, G., (2018). Defining the baselines and standards for microplastics analyses in European waters (JPI-O BASEMAN). (2018) Sixth International Marine Debris Conference, San Diego California, U.S.A. (12th-16th March 2018)

Pham, CK, Frias JPGL, Rodrigues, Y, Carriço, R., et al. (2018). Impacts of plastic pollution in the North Altantic subtropical gyre. Sixth International Marine Debris Conference, San Diego California, U.S.A. (12th-16th March 2018)

Bessa F, Barria P, Neto JM, Frias JPGL, Otero V, Sobral P, Marques JC. (2017).  Microplastics in juvenile commercial fish from a natural estuarine environment. International Conference on Microplastic Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. Capri, Italy, (26-29th September 2017)

Bessa F, Barria P, Neto JM, Frias JPGL, Otero V, Sobral P, Marques JC. Extração e identificação de microplásticos em peixes no ambiente estuarino. MICROPLÁSTICOS 2016 – 1º Congresso Português sobre Microplásticos: Contaminação Ambiental por Microplásticos e suas Implicações para a Saúde dos Ecossistemas, Animal e Humana. Porto, Portugal, (19-20th December,).

Frias J.P.G.L., (2017). Marine litter: an issue with no borders. GMIT (September 29th 2017)

Frias J.P.G.L., (2016). 90 Segundos de Ciência - EP. 1 – Plástico no mar dos Açores ameaça a vida marinha. 

Pham, C., Frias J.P.G.L., Carriço, R., Rodríguez, Y., (2016). Monitorização de microplásticos na orla costeira do arquipélago dos Açores. MICROPLÁSTICOS 2016 (1st , 19th and 20th December.

Pham, C., Frias J.P.G.L., Carriço, R., Rodríguez, Y., Cruz, M. J., Ríos, N., Dâmaso, C., (2016). Azorlit - Estabelecimento de pontos de referência para o lixo marinho nos Açores. Conferência Portuguesa sobre Lixo Marinho (1st ed.), 15th-17th September.

Frias J.P.G.L., Carriço, R., Rodríguez, Y., Pham, C., (2016). Aprendendo com os erros: Adaptando metodologias para estimar o lixo marinho. Conferência Portuguesa sobre Lixo Marinho (1st ed.), 15th-17th September.

Frias J.P.G.L., Carriço, R., Rodríguez, Y., Rios, N., Garcia, S., Pham, C., (2016). Marine litter accumulation in the Azorean archipelago: Azorlit preliminary data. Session VIIh. MICRO 2016: Fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems from the coastline to the open sea. Lanzarote, Spain, 25-27th May.

Frias J.P.G.L., Sobral, P., (2016) O lixo marinho na CPLP – Respostas Nacionais e Regionais para um problema glocal. East Timor, 15-18th May.

Frias J.P.G.L., (2014) guest speaker on RTP Sociedade Civil (VIII) show. Portugal, 1st January. Full show in Portuguese available here.

Frias J.P.G.L., MARLISCO National Forum on Marine Litter. (2014). Member of the Panel on behalf of APLM. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Portugal, 24th October 2014

Frias J.P.G.L., Sobral, P., (2014) - 2nd International Ocean Research Conference (2IORC) with the oral presentation: “Biomarker effects of the ingestion of different concentrations of microplastic particles by Mytilus galloprovincialis (Linnaeus, 1758)”, Abstracts from the 2nd International Ocean Research Conference. Barcelona, Spain. 17-21st November.

Frias, J.P.G.L., (2013) TEDx FCTUNL. Plastic Pollution - Water we doing?  4th October.

Frias, J., Sobral, P. (2013). Distribution of Persistent Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals in Plastic Pellets in Portugal - Collaboration with the International Pellet Watch (IPW), Abstracts from the International Coastal Symposium-ICS2013 Plymouth, 8-12th April

16.  Frias, J., Sobral, P. (2012). Plastic vs. plankton – a struggle with no end in sight. Abstracts of 50th Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association Conference - ECSA50, Venice, Italy 3-7th June.

Antunes, J., Frias, J., Sobral P., Micaelo, C., Santos, I. (2012). Plastic marine debris from beaches of the Portuguese coast: size distribution and concentration of persistent organic pollutants in resin pellets. Abstracts of the 50th Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association - ECSA50, Venice, Italy. 3-7 June.

Frias, J., Sobral, P. (2011). Temporal analysis of microplastic concentrations in plankton samples. Abstracts of the 12th European Ecological Federation Congress, Ávila, Spain. 25-29 September.

Martins, J., Frias, J., Sobral, P. (2011). Plastic marine debris in the Portuguese Coastline. Oral extended abstracts from the 5th International Marine Debris Conference, Honolulu, Hawai, USA. p. 218-221. 20-25th March

Frias, J. Sobral, P, Ferreira, A.M., (2010). Organic pollutants in microplastics from two beaches of the Portuguese coast. Abstracts of the 47th Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association Meeting- ECSA47. Figueira da Foz, Portugal. 14-19th September.

Frias, J. Sobral, P, Ferreira, A.M (2010). Poluição por plásticos em duas praias portuguesas. 12 Encontro Nacional de Ecologia. Porto.

Frias J.P.G.L., Sobral, P., Ferreira, A.M. (2010). Microplastics: the poisoned "present”. Abstracts of the 3rd International Conference on Coastal Conservation and Management - ICCCM, Estoril, Portugal, 11-14th April.

 

 
IMG_5449.JPG